Detection tests for the presence and/or concentration of a molecule in a sample through various methods. The molecule of interest can be a nucleic acid, peptide, antibody, or antigen; the methods involve, for example, immunoassays, quantification through fluorophores, or radiolabeling.
Detection Kits and Methods
Detection procedures involve extracting and purifying nucleic acids following an agarose gel electrophoresis for identification purposes.
Quantification of the total amount of sample is a necessary first step during most analyses.
ELISA detects particles using antibodies and a simple enzymatic color change. Types include Direct or Indirect, Sandwich, and Competitive ELISA.
Labeling can identify the location of molecules within the cell or the genome as well as determine their presence or concentration.
Enzyme assays measure enzymatic activity within the cell, using detective methods like fluorescence, luminescence or colorimetry.
Microarrays is a lab-on-chip device allow scientists to investigate the expression of thousands of genes in multiple samples simultaneously.
Pathogen detection is essential in clinical microbiology and the food industry, it allows proper treatment and prevention of illness.
Quantification of protein concentration is a necessary first step during any protein analysis. This can be achieved by UV absorbance or HPLC
Blotting reagents are essential in western, northern and southern blotting for detection of proteins and nucleic acids.
Depending on what your sample is (RNA, DNA, protein or tissue), the method of detection for your target molecule will vary. The organism that the molecule originated from can also determine which kit you will require. For example, detecting a viroid in plants will involve different procedures compared to testing whether E.coli is present in a water sample. If you need to detect whether a certain bacterium or virus is within your test subject, there are certain specialized kits for that. On top of that, there are kits that are developed for certain sample types such as; urine, cell culture, blood, as well as food.
Quantification and Protein Quantification
Quantification determines the concentration of proteins or nucleic acids within a sample, and is an essential step before further analysis such as Western blotting or sequencing. These techniques usually require a minimum amount of protein / nucleic acid to be loaded for testing. It is often best to perform quantification methods prior to protein purification, as the outcome of the downstream methods can greatly vary depending on protein concentration.
Check out or Bradford Assay Troubleshoot for more assistance in this area.
ELISA kits help determine which specific nucleic acids/proteins are within a sample via the use of specific complementary antibodies. The assay can analyze the sample (either qualitatively or quantitatively); utilizing serum, plasma, or tissues. In comparison with Western blotting, ELISA is simpler and quicker but requires the antibody to be much more specific. ELISA also mainly works on native proteins, whilst Westerns works on denatured proteins (and identifies the purity of your proteins).
The ELISA Troubleshoot contains further information regarding potential errors.
For processes such as ELISA, labeling processes are necessary to determine whether the whole procedure is successful. More specifically, labeling nucleic acids and proteins can identify the position of these molecules within the cell or the genome as well as determine their presence or concentration.
You can explore our Antibody Labeling Troubleshoot for more guidance.
Enzymes are specialized proteins or in some cases RNA molecules which speed up reactions in the cell. Given an enzyme’s ability to catalyze a reaction, they are vital for cellular processes such as signaling pathways, metabolism, and gene expression. Thus in knowing enzyme activity within the cell, scientists can infer the mechanism behind reactions.