Biochemicals on ZAGENO
Chemical reactions within living organisms require biochemicals; whether they are the starting material, reaction intermediate or the final product. Researchers use these organic compounds in all fields of study as they are essential for metabolism as well as all other signal transduction pathways.
Types of Biochemicals
• Amino Acids – Have amine (-NH2) and carboxyl groups (-COOH), as well as a specific side chain. Linked together they constitute peptides and proteins.
• Antibiotics – Target and kill a specific group of cells by a specific mechanism. Examples include penicillin, puromycin, and ampicillin.
• Carbohydrates – Provide energy in the form of ATP when broken down. Classified as either monosaccharides, oligosaccharides or polysaccharides.
• Lipids – Hydrophobic compounds, which make up most cell membranes. Come in the form of glycerophospholipids, fatty acids, and glycerolipids, but to name a few
• Nucleotides – Have a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and a minimum of one phosphate group. Together they make up nucleic acids such as DNA & RNA.
• Proteins & Peptides – Peptides are made up of a small chain of amino acids, while proteins comprise of one or more polypeptide chains and are vital in most cellular processes.
• Enzymes – Act as biological catalysts. Ensuring reactions are carried out in much shorter times with lower energy expenditure. Polymerases are fundamental in PCR.
• Hormones – Chemical signaling molecules which can target the same cell (autocrine signaling), nearby cells (paracrine signaling) or distant cells (endocrine signaling).
• Growth Factors – Stimulate cell growth and proliferation by binding membrane receptors. Useful in cell culture applications.