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Amino Acids on ZAGENO

D-Valine Sigma-Aldrich
Reagent Type Amino acids Applicable Processes Synthesis Quantity 5 g, 25 g
From $ 30.00 (5 g)
Sizes 2 (5 - 25 g)
Catalog IDs 855987-5G, 855987-25G
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D-Valine Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Reagent Type Amino acids Applicable Processes Synthesis Quantity 5 g
From $ 31.00 (5 g)
Sizes 1 (5 g)
Catalog IDs sc-257298
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L-Arginine ForMedium
Reagent Type Other reagents Applicable Processes / Quantity /
From $ 20.39 (10 mg)
Sizes 6 (5 - 1000 g)
Catalog IDs DOC0106, A8094-10MG, ...
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H-Trp-OH Advanced ChemTech
Reagent Type / Applicable Processes / Quantity /
From $ 45.00 (100 g)
Sizes 2 (100 - 500 g)
Catalog IDs YW2525-100G, YW2525-500G
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L-Arginine Hydrochloride, U.S.P., Multi-Compendial Avantor Performance
Reagent Type Biochemicals Applicable Processes / Quantity /
From $ 280.98 (1 kg)
Sizes 1 (1 kg)
Catalog IDs JT2067-6
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L-ARGININE, FREE BASE AMRESCO
Reagent Type Amino acids Applicable Processes Cultivation, Synthesis Quantity 100 g, 500 g
From $ 55.70 (100 g)
Sizes 2 (100 - 500 g)
Catalog IDs 0953-100G, 0953-500G
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Alfa Aesar™ L-Valine, 99% Fisher Scientific
Reagent Type Amino acids Applicable Processes Synthesis Quantity 25 g, 100 g, 500 g
From $ 26.20 (25 g)
Sizes 3 (25 - 500 g)
Catalog IDs AAA1272014, AAA1272022, ...
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L-Lysine Sigma-Aldrich
Reagent Type Amino acids Applicable Processes Cultivation, Enzymatic reaction Quantity 10 mg, 1000 mg, 5000 mg, 25000 mg, 100000 mg
From $ 16.20 (10 mg)
Sizes 6 (10 - 100000 mg)
Catalog IDs L5501-10MG, 23128-100MG, ...
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L-Valine Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Reagent Type Amino acids Applicable Processes Synthesis Quantity 25 g
From $ 25.00 (25 g)
Sizes 1 (25 g)
Catalog IDs sc-397358
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GlutaMAX™ Supplement Gibco
Reagent Type Amino acids Applicable Processes Cultivation Quantity 100 ml, 20 x 100ml
From $ 33.18 (100 ml)
Sizes 2 (100 - 2000 ml)
Catalog IDs 35050061, 35050079
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H-Trp-OH Molbase
Reagent Type Amino acids Applicable Processes / Quantity /
From $ 13.00 (25 g)
Sizes 1 (25 g)
Catalog IDs MB145641_99_25g
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L-Histidine, USP Spectrum Chemical
Reagent Type Amino acids Applicable Processes Cultivation, Synthesis Quantity 25 g, 100 g, 1 kg, 25 kg
From $ 94.40 (25 g)
Sizes 4 (1 - 100 kg)
Catalog IDs H1021-1KG, H1021-25GM, ...
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Amino Acid Functions

Amino acids are organic molecules comprised mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. They contain a side chain (R group), which is specific for each amino acid, in addition to an amine (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) functional group. Around 500 amino acids are known, whereas only 20 are coded by the DNA. For humans nine amino acids like Histidine or Lysine are essential, meaning they cannot be produced by the body itself and have to be taken up with food.

In vivo, amino acids are the building blocks of peptides and proteins. Through translation of RNA amino acids are attached step-by-step with each other. The sequence for these polymer chains is encoded by the DNA which is then transcribed into RNA followed by the translation into proteins.

Problems in the lab? Find the solutions in our Knowledge and Troubleshooting sections. Alternatively, our Community of experienced researchers can help! Still confused? See How ZAGENO Works.

Peptide Bond Formation

The peptide bond is formed by the reaction of the carboxyl group with the amino group of the following amino acid resulting in an amide bond. In most cases the in vivo polymerization is catalyzed by ribosomes together with different other molecules like transfer RNA (tRNA) – which carry the next amino acid –, initiation factors, elongation factors and termination factors. tRNAs are linked with only one specific amino acid through an ester bond by enzymes called aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. The right sequence of the proteins is achieved by complementary base pairing of the loaded tRNAs with the mRNA situated in the ribosomes. The genetic code is defined by codons, a sequence of three DNA bases which code for one amino acid. Since the genetic code has redundancy but no ambiguity, there are codons translate into the same amino acid but no codon that can translate into two different amino acids.

Structure

All proteinogenic amino acids belong to the group of α-amino acids – the amine and carboxyl group are attached to the first (alpha-) carbon atom – and occur in two chiral forms, called L- or D-isomer. Most proteins are composed of L-amino acids, but rarely enzymatic posttranslational modifications can produce proteins with D-amino acids.

In terms of proteins, the amino acid sequence is called primary structure. Along with posttranslational modifications, the primary structure determines the secondary and the tertiary structure of a protein.

Applications

Beside the use in protein synthesis, amino acids can exert non-protein functions. Through oxidation to urea and carbon dioxide, they may be converted into energy. The synthesis of neurotransmitters like gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and other molecules require amino acids as precursors.

Labeling of amino acids is widely used in the field of proteomics, e.g. in SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) experiments. You have the choice between various labeling techniques like radioactive isotope, non-radioactive isotope or dye labeling.

In the industry animal feed is complemented with amino acids to compensate the absence of essential amino acids in the bulk components.

Glutamic acid is often used as a flavor enhancer, and aspartame as a low-calorie sugar replacement.