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Amino Acids
L-Leucine SKU:1357001
Scientific Score
0.10
Brand
USP
Sizes
1 (200 mg)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price
$ 294.77
Catalog IDs
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Amino Acids
L-Glutamine, MP Biomedicals
Scientific Score
0.49
Brand
MP Biomedicals
Sizes
1 (100 ml)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price
$ 29.24
Catalog IDs
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Amino Acids
Pyr-Ala-OH
Scientific Score
2.25
Brand
Bachem
Sizes
2 (1 - 5 g)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price Range
$ 400.00 - $ 1,601.00
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Amino Acids
Arginine Hydrochloride, Usp
Purity
/
/
CAS Number
1119-34-2
1119-34-2
Molecular Weight
/
/
Scientific Score
2.20
Brand
Spectrum Chemical
Sizes
1 (1 kg)
Available From
2 Vendors
Price Range
$ 435.35 - $ 464.05
Catalog IDs
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Amino Acids
DL-Serine
Purity
/
/
CAS Number
302-84-1
302-84-1
Molecular Weight
105.1
105.1
Scientific Score
6.90
Brand
MP Biomedicals
Sizes
3 (25 - 1000 g)
Available From
3 Vendors
Price Range
$ 30.86 - $ 524.80
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Amino Acids
L-Arginine
Purity
/
/
CAS Number
74-79-3
74-79-3
Molecular Weight
174.2
174.2
Scientific Score
6.04
Brand
MP Biomedicals
Sizes
3 (100 - 1000 g)
Available From
3 Vendors
Price Range
$ 47.65 - $ 259.17
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Amino Acids
L-Asparagine
Purity
Cell Culture Reagent Grade
Cell Culture Reagent Grade
CAS Number
70-47-3
70-47-3
Molecular Weight
132.1
132.1
Scientific Score
7.35
Brand
MP Biomedicals
Sizes
7 (25 - 1000 g)
Available From
3 Vendors
Price Range
$ 27.65 - $ 454.46
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Amino Acids
L-Citrulline
Purity
/
/
CAS Number
372-75-8
372-75-8
Molecular Weight
175.19
175.19
Scientific Score
6.13
Brand
MP Biomedicals
Sizes
5 (5 - 1000 g)
Available From
3 Vendors
Price Range
$ 40.90 - $ 2,315.71
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Amino Acids
L-Glutamine
Purity
≥99%
≥99%
CAS Number
56-85-9
56-85-9
Molecular Weight
146.1
146.1
Scientific Score
6.25
Brand
MP Biomedicals
Sizes
6 (5 - 1000 g)
Available From
3 Vendors
Price Range
$ 31.20 - $ 472.11
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Amino Acids
RPMI 1640 SKU: 091646454
Purity
/
/
CAS Number
/
/
Molecular Weight
/
/
Scientific Score
2.24
Brand
MP Biomedicals
Sizes
1 (500 ml)
Available From
2 Vendors
Price Range
$ 60.49 - $ 67.80
Catalog IDs
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Amino Acids
(S)-4-Carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine
Purity
>98%
>98%
CAS Number
85148-82-9
85148-82-9
Molecular Weight
211.17
211.17
Scientific Score
5.13
Brand
Tocris
Sizes
2 (10 - 50 mg)
Available From
2 Vendors
Price Range
$ 339.00 - $ 1,425.00
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Amino Acids
GLYCINE SKU: LC148751
Purity
≥98.5%
≥98.5%
CAS Number
56-40-6
56-40-6
Molecular Weight
75.07
75.07
Scientific Score
6.32
Brand
LabChem
Sizes
1 (500 g)
Available From
3 Vendors
Price Range
$ 54.33 - $ 111.05
Catalog IDs
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Amino Acid Functions

Amino acids are organic molecules comprised mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. They contain a side chain (R group), which is specific for each amino acid, in addition to an amine (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) functional group. Around 500 amino acids are known, whereas only 20 are coded by the DNA. For humans nine amino acids like Histidine or Lysine are essential, meaning they cannot be produced by the body itself and have to be taken up with food.

In vivo, amino acids are the building blocks of peptides and proteins. Through translation of RNA amino acids are attached step-by-step with each other. The sequence for these polymer chains is encoded by the DNA which is then transcribed into RNA followed by the translation into proteins.

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Peptide Bond Formation

The peptide bond is formed by the reaction of the carboxyl group with the amino group of the following amino acid resulting in an amide bond. In most cases the in vivo polymerization is catalyzed by ribosomes together with different other molecules like transfer RNA (tRNA) – which carry the next amino acid –, initiation factors, elongation factors and termination factors. tRNAs are linked with only one specific amino acid through an ester bond by enzymes called aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. The right sequence of the proteins is achieved by complementary base pairing of the loaded tRNAs with the mRNA situated in the ribosomes. The genetic code is defined by codons, a sequence of three DNA bases which code for one amino acid. Since the genetic code has redundancy but no ambiguity, there are codons translate into the same amino acid but no codon that can translate into two different amino acids.

Structure

All proteinogenic amino acids belong to the group of α-amino acids – the amine and carboxyl group are attached to the first (alpha-) carbon atom – and occur in two chiral forms, called L- or D-isomer. Most proteins are composed of L-amino acids, but rarely enzymatic posttranslational modifications can produce proteins with D-amino acids.

In terms of proteins, the amino acid sequence is called primary structure. Along with posttranslational modifications, the primary structure determines the secondary and the tertiary structure of a protein.

Applications

Beside the use in protein synthesis, amino acids can exert non-protein functions. Through oxidation to urea and carbon dioxide, they may be converted into energy. The synthesis of neurotransmitters like gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and other molecules require amino acids as precursors.

Labeling of amino acids is widely used in the field of proteomics, e.g. in SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) experiments. You have the choice between various labeling techniques like radioactive isotope, non-radioactive isotope or dye labeling.

In the industry animal feed is complemented with amino acids to compensate the absence of essential amino acids in the bulk components.

Glutamic acid is often used as a flavor enhancer, and aspartame as a low-calorie sugar replacement.