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Carbohydrates

myo-Inositol

Sigma-Aldrich

From
$ 47.65 (50 g)
Sizes
4 (1 - 500 kg)
Catalog IDs
I7508-1KG, I7508-50G, ...
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Carbohydrates

D-(+)-Maltose monohydrate SKU : M5885

Sigma-Aldrich

CAS Number
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Molecular Formula
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Molecular Weight
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From
$ 31.06 (100 g)
Sizes
3 (1 - 500 kg)
Catalog IDs
M5885-1KG, M5885-100G, ...
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Carbohydrates

D-(+)-Melezitose monohydrate SKU : 63620

Sigma-Aldrich

CAS Number
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Molecular Formula
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Molecular Weight
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From
$ 44.75 (10 g)
Sizes
2 (10 - 50 g)
Catalog IDs
63620-10G-F, 63620-50G-F
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Carbohydrates

UDP-Azide-Glucose

Active Motif

CAS Number
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Molecular Formula
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From
$ 235.00 (1 Vial)
Sizes
1 (1 Vial)
Catalog IDs
55020
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Carbohydrates

D-(+)-Glucose SKU : g7528

Sigma-Aldrich

CAS Number
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Molecular Formula
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Molecular Weight
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From
$ 20.48 (10 mg)
Sizes
3 (1 - 10 kg)
Catalog IDs
G7528-1KG, G7528-5KG, ...
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Carbohydrates

D-Glucose 6-phosphate solution SKU : g7772

Sigma-Aldrich

CAS Number
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Molecular Formula
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Molecular Weight
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From
$ 78.50 (500 mg)
Sizes
3 (1 - 500 g)
Catalog IDs
G7772-1G, G7772-5G, ...
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Carbohydrates

D-(−)-Fructose SKU : f2543

Sigma-Aldrich

CAS Number
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Molecular Formula
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Molecular Weight
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From
$ 46.25 (100 g)
Sizes
3 (1 - 500 kg)
Catalog IDs
F2543-1KG, F2543-100G, ...
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Carbohydrates

α-D-Glucose 1-phosphate disodium salt hydrate SKU : g7000

Sigma-Aldrich

CAS Number
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Molecular Formula
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Molecular Weight
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From
$ 42.25 (1 g)
Sizes
5 (1 - 100 g)
Catalog IDs
G7000-1G, G7000-5G, ...
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Carbohydrates

D-(+)-Galactosamine hydrochloride SKU : g0500

Sigma-Aldrich

CAS Number
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Molecular Formula
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Molecular Weight
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From
$ 12.40 (10 mg)
Sizes
3 (5 - 25 g)
Catalog IDs
G0500-5G, G0500-10MG, ...
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Carbohydrates

D-(+)-Glucose SKU : g5146

Sigma-Aldrich

CAS Number
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Molecular Formula
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Molecular Weight
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From
$ 43.25 (1 kg)
Sizes
2 (1 - 10 kg)
Catalog IDs
G5146-1KG, G5146-10KG
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Carbohydrates

D-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate tetra(cyclohexylammonium) salt SKU : f0752

Sigma-Aldrich

CAS Number
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Molecular Formula
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Molecular Weight
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From
$ 118.00 (5 g)
Sizes
2 (5 - 10 g)
Catalog IDs
F0752-5G, F0752-10G
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Carbohydrates

Ficoll® PM 70 SKU : f2878

Sigma-Aldrich

CAS Number
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Molecular Formula
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Molecular Weight
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From
$ 340.00 (100 g)
Sizes
2 (100 - 500 g)
Catalog IDs
F2878-100G, F2878-500G
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Carbohydrate Structure

Carbohydrates, depending on their size, are classified as either monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. All four groupings contain a high concentration of hydroxyl groups, the three core elements being carbon hydrogen and oxygen.

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Classifications

Monosaccharides

Monosaccharides and disaccharides have low molecular weights and are classified as sugars; glucose and fructose are examples of monosaccharides, while disaccharides include sucrose and lactose.

Oligosaccharides

Oligosaccharides are no longer than ten monosaccharides in length. A subset known as probiotics have positive digestion effects; stimulating and suppressing different groups of bacteria in our intestines.

Polysaccharides

Polysaccharides, (carbohydrate polymers), are divided into homo- and heteropolysaccharides; either consisting of one type of monosaccharide or made up of multiple types of monosaccharides, respectively.

Homopolysaccharides include:

• Starch

• Cellulose

• Glycogen

• Beta-glucan

Heteropolysaccharides contain all dietary fibers:

• Hemicellulose

• Pectin

• Pentosan

• Guar Gum

• Carrageenan

Processing and Functions

Mitochondria break down carbohydrates to produce the energy-providing molecule: ATP. Whereas, in bacteria, the fermentation process can yield various products from the breakdown of carbohydrates, depending on the species of bacteria. Therefore carbohydrates are a useful bacterial identification tool. They are also used as part of cellular structures, such as receptors on the membrane