The process of a substance dissolving another and forming an equally distributed solution is determined by a compound’s solubility. More specifically, in a solution, all of the ingredients are uniform with no remaining residues. The compound that breaks down the opposing molecule is known as the solvent; the compound that is dissolved is the solute. If this solvent-solute mixture cannot form a single liquid phase, then non-solution mixtures such as suspensions or emulsions are formed. Although one of the more common solvents is simply water, other solvents like which are better suited to dissolve specific solutes.
Types and Applications
Solvents are classified into two categories: polar and non-polar. There are exceptions to this, but they are rare (mercury is one such example). The dielectric constant is the measuring system used to determine polarity. Solvents whose dielectric constant is below 15 are nonpolar, whereas those above are polar. Polar solvents are further divided into protic and aprotic categories, depending on whether they solvate anions via hydrogen bonds or solvate positively charged molecules via their negative dipole.
The use of solvents in the lab range from cleaners, beauty product development, drug production, and other chemical syntheses.