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Stains
Green-fluorescent Cytoplasmic Membrane Staining Kit SKU: PK-CA707-30021
Absorbance
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/
CAS Number
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/
Applicable Processes
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/
Scientific Score
5.66
Brand
PromoCell
Sizes
1 (1 ml)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price
$ 212.63
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Stains
Orange-fluorescent Cytoplasmic Membrane Staining Kit SKU: PK-CA707-30022
Absorbance
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/
CAS Number
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/
Applicable Processes
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/
Scientific Score
5.66
Brand
PromoCell
Sizes
1 (1 ml)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price
$ 212.63
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Stains
DAPI Solution SKU: AR1176
Scientific Score
1.41
Brand
Boster Bio
Sizes
1 (10 ml)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price
$ 15.00
Catalog IDs
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Stains
Imprinted Membrane Fast Reversible Protein Staining Reagent SKU: AR0142
Scientific Score
1.40
Brand
Boster Bio
Sizes
1 (12 ml)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price
$ 10.00
Catalog IDs
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Stains
Sybr Green I 10X50Ul
Absorbance
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CAS Number
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Applicable Processes
Detection
Detection
Scientific Score
6.24
Brand
Lonza
Sizes
1 (500 µl)
Available From
2 Vendors
Price Range
$ 323.99 - $ 410.50
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Stains
Ghost Dye™ Uv 450 100 Tests
Scientific Score
0.45
Brand
Tonbo Biosciences
Sizes
1 (100 Tests)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price
$ 49.14
Catalog IDs
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Stains
Fixable Viability Stain 510 RUO
Absorbance
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/
CAS Number
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Applicable Processes
Flow cytometry, Staining
Flow cytometry, Staining
Scientific Score
8.16
Brand
BD
Sizes
1 (100 µg)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price
$ 225.00
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Stains
Coomassie Brilliant Blue Destaining Solution SKU: 10493
Absorbance
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CAS Number
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Applicable Processes
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Scientific Score
8.05
Brand
Cepham Life Sciences
Sizes
2 (1 - 3.79 L)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price Range
$ 51.50 - $ 194.30
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Stains
Blue Juice
Scientific Score
1.40
Brand
MP Biomedicals
Sizes
1 (25 ml)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price
$ 98.53
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Stains
Hematoxylin Hydrate
Absorbance
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/
CAS Number
517-28-2
517-28-2
Applicable Processes
/
/
Scientific Score
7.99
Brand
MP Biomedicals
Sizes
3 (5 - 100 g)
Available From
2 Vendors
Price Range
$ 32.18 - $ 329.02
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Stains
Ponceau S Staining Solution
Absorbance
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/
CAS Number
6226-79-5
6226-79-5
Applicable Processes
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/
Scientific Score
8.90
Brand
Tocris
Sizes
1 (500 ml)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price
$ 69.00
Catalog IDs
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Stains
Atto MB2 SKU : 75118
Absorbance
Amax 658 nm in ethanol(lit.);Amax 667 nm in 0.1 M phosphate pH 7.0
Amax 658 nm in ethanol(lit.);Amax 667 nm in 0.1 M phosphate pH 7.0
CAS Number
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/
Applicable Processes
/
/
Scientific Score
9.04
Brand
Sigma-Aldrich
Sizes
1 (1 mg)
Available From
2 Vendors
Price Range
$ 104.40 - $ 149.82
Catalog IDs
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Staining

Staining is a technique used to identify target molecules and provide contrast in an image, usually in microscopy. For example, biological tissues ranging from muscle fibers to organelles, are often stained to highlight particular regions for viewing with a microscope. Overall, staining involves adding a class specific dye, such as DNA, proteins, lipids or carbohydrates, to quantify and qualify their presence.

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Staining Methods

There are two common types of staining in biochemistry:

In vivo staining involves dyeing living tissue by causing cells or structures to take up the stain’s color. In doing so reveals

In vitro staining is done outside of the biological context. In vitro staining is usually used with other methods such as fixation and sample preparation. For example, the crystal violet stain only works with Gram-positive bacteria. If then, another stain is used that works on all cell-types, then Gram-negative bacteria can be identified.

In Vitro Methods

In vitro methods vary given the biological materials at hand, but in general, they follow these steps:

Preparation, either through

Fixation: preserve the shape of cells or tissues

Permeabilization: applying a mild surfactant to dissolve cell membranes, allowing for greater access to organelles

Mounting: applying a sample to a glass microscope slide.

Staining

Immerse target sample in the stain solution, and rinsing to remove excess dye.

If this is ineffective, then a mordant is usually required; a chemical compound which reacts with the stain to produce a colored precipitate.

Some common examples of staining techniques are:

Gram Staining: Determines gram status to classify bacteria, which are either Gram-negative or Gram-positive. Based on cell wall composition, Gram-positive bacteria stain a dark blue to violet, whereas Gram-negative appear red or pink.

Haematoxylin and eosin staining: Used in histology to examine thin sections of tissues. Hematoxylin targets cell nuclei and stains them blue, whereas eosin stains the cytoplasm pink.

Masson’s Trichrome: a three-color staining method used to distinguish cells from connective tissue.

Types of Stains:

Acridine Orange: a fluorescent cationic dye for cell cycle determination targeting nucleic acids

Coomassie blue: a stain used in gel electrophoresis that stains proteins blue

Crystal Violet: stains cell walls purple, and is the primary stain used in Gram staining

DAPI: binds to DNA, and shines a blue fluorescence when viewed under ultraviolet light

Eosin: a counterstain to hematoxylin and to color cytoplasmic material

Ethidium Bromide: colors DNA a fluorescent red-orange color.

Hematoxylin: targets the nucleus, and is the counter part to eosin

Iodine: indicates the presence of starch

Methylene blue: stains the nucleus of animal cells