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Antibiotics

Score 2.20

Amphotericin B

ACTGene

From
$ 141.96 (1 g)
Sizes
2 (1 - 5 g)
Catalog IDs
R1397-1g, R1397-5g
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Antibiotics

Score 2.23

Apramycin Sulfate

ACTGene

From
$ 148.38 (5 g)
Sizes
2 (5 - 50 g)
Catalog IDs
R6571-5g, R6571-50g
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Antibiotics

Score 7.75

15mg/mL Tetracycline in 50% ethanol Solution

Teknova

CAS Number
/
/
Molecular Formula
C22H24N2O8
C22H24N2O8
Concentration
/
/
From
$ 22.27 (25 ml)
Sizes
1 (25 ml)
Catalog IDs
T3335
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Antibiotics

Score 1.46

Hygromycin B

Applied Biological Materials

From
$ 135.00 (1 g)
Sizes
1 (1 g)
Catalog IDs
G265
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Antibiotics

Score 0.22

Spectinomycin dihydrochloride

Applied Biological Materials

From
$ 25.00 (1 ml)
Sizes
1 (1 ml)
Catalog IDs
G442
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Antibiotics

Score 1.71

Streptomycin

Applied Biological Materials

From
$ 35.00 (5 ml)
Sizes
1 (5 ml)
Catalog IDs
G023
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Antibiotics

Score 1.46

Gentamycin

Applied Biological Materials

From
$ 80.00 (25 g)
Sizes
1 (25 g)
Catalog IDs
G056
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Antibiotics

Score 3.36

Bombesin

LKT Laboratories

From
$ 49.12 (1 mg)
Sizes
3 (1 - 5 mg)
Catalog IDs
B5648-1MG, B5648-2MG, ...
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Antibiotics

Score 9.78

Narasin (sodium salt) SKU: 19447

Cayman Chemical

CAS Number
58331-17-2
58331-17-2
Molecular Formula
/
/
Concentration
/
/
From
$ 99.00 (5 mg)
Sizes
2 (5 - 25 mg)
Catalog IDs
19447-5, 19447-25
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Antibiotics

Score 8.52

L-Glutamine–Penicillin–Streptomycin solution SKU : g6784

Sigma-Aldrich

CAS Number
/
/
Molecular Formula
/
/
Concentration
/
/
From
$ 58.10 (50 ml)
Sizes
2 (50 - 100 ml)
Catalog IDs
G6784-10X5ML, G6784-100ML
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Antibiotics

Score 7.88

Gentamicin-Glutamine solution SKU : g9654

Sigma-Aldrich

CAS Number
/
/
Molecular Formula
/
/
Concentration
/
/
From
$ 65.00 (50 ml)
Sizes
1 (50 ml)
Catalog IDs
G9654-10X5ML
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Antibiotics

Score 6.91

Flumethasone pivalate SKU : f0891

Sigma-Aldrich

CAS Number
/
/
Molecular Formula
/
/
Concentration
/
/
From
$ 133.00 (100 mg)
Sizes
1 (100 mg)
Catalog IDs
F0891-100MG
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Antibiotic Functions

Antibiotics (or antibacterials) are substances that are capable of either killing bacteria or inhibiting bacterial growth but are not effective against viruses. They are widely used as drugs to treat diseases caused by bacterial infections like tuberculosis, meningitis or salmonella infections. Antibiotics are grouped into families, with Penicillins being one of the first discovered antibiotics.

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Mechanisms

The antibacterial effect is mediated through different mechanisms:

• Binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit with subsequential inhibition of protein synthesis (e.g. Aminoglycosides)

• Inhibition of the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer in bacterial cell walls (e.g. Penicillins)

• Inhibition of protein synthesis by preventing the initiation step of translation (e.g. Oxazolidinones)

• Preventing DNA replication and transcription by inhibition of the DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV (e.g. Quinolones)

• Folate synthesis inhibition resulting in the disability to synthesize nucleic acids (e.g. Sulfonamides)

Antibiotics are very effective to handle bacterial diseases and are readily available. This results in an overuse and an increasing resistance of bacteria against antibiotics. Especially in the animal husbandry antibiotics are routinely used.

Applications

In research, antibiotics are of high importance for various techniques.

Cloning

In molecular cloning procedures, they are used to distinguish between bacteria that have incorporated exogenous DNA through transformation and bacteria where transformation has failed. The selection is achieved by introducing an antibiotic resistance into the bacteria together with the genetic modification. Only successfully transformed cells are able to survive on the antibiotic supplemented agar plates.

Protein Synthesis/Gene Expression

For the synthesis of recombinant proteins or conditional gene expression, systems that alter the expression of specific genes depending on the presence or absence of an antibiotic are available. One example of such a system is the Tet-On system which switches on gene expression in the presence of tetracycline or the more stable derivate doxycycline. These systems may also be used in generating transgenic mice with a conditionally expressed gene of interest.

Culture

In cell culture, you may use a mix of penicillin and streptomycin (Pen-Strep) to decrease the risk of bacterial infection of your cell lines. Many cell lines are contaminated with Mycoplasma, a genus of bacteria which lack a cell wall. When detected, you can treat a Mycoplasma infection with several antibiotic-containing antimycoplasma reagents.