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1,1,2-Trimethyl-3-(4-sulfobutyl)benz[e]indolium, inner salt SKU : 646679
Absorbance
/
CAS Number
/
Applicable Processes
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Scientific Score
8.80
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1 (5 g)
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Methyl Orange SKU : 68250
Absorbance
501.4 nm in H2O (acidified)
501.4 nm in H2O (acidified)
CAS Number
/
Applicable Processes
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Scientific Score
9.69
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Sigma-Aldrich
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3 (25 - 500 g)
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$ 20.04 - $ 117.00
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cis-Bis(isothiocyanato)(2,2′-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarboxylato)(4,4′-di-nonyl-2′-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) SKU : 703168
Absorbance
531, 314, 295 nm(lit.)
531, 314, 295 nm(lit.)
CAS Number
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Applicable Processes
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Scientific Score
9.65
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Sigma-Aldrich
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1 (1 g)
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$ 226.00 - $ 247.48
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cis-Bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2′-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarboxylato)ruthenium(II) SKU : 703206
Absorbance
534, 395, 312 nm(lit.)
534, 395, 312 nm(lit.)
CAS Number
/
Applicable Processes
/
Scientific Score
9.65
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Sigma-Aldrich
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1 (1 g)
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Di-tetrabutylammonium cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2′-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarboxylato)ruthenium(II) SKU : 703214
Absorbance
534, 393, 313 nm(lit.)
534, 393, 313 nm(lit.)
CAS Number
/
Applicable Processes
/
Scientific Score
8.62
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Sigma-Aldrich
Sizes
1 (1 g)
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$ 439.00 - $ 481.63
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Neutral Red SKU : 72210
Absorbance
/
CAS Number
/
Applicable Processes
/
Scientific Score
8.88
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Sigma-Aldrich
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3 (5 - 100 g)
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Nile Red SKU : 72485
Absorbance
λmax 553 nm
λmax 553 nm
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/
Applicable Processes
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Scientific Score
8.82
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2 (1 - 100000 g)
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9,10-Anthracenediyl-bis(methylene)dimalonic acid SKU : 75068
Absorbance
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CAS Number
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Scientific Score
7.28
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Sigma-Aldrich
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1 (50000 µg)
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Atto MB2 SKU : 75118
Absorbance
Amax 658 nm in ethanol(lit.);Amax 667 nm in 0.1 M phosphate pH 7.0
Amax 658 nm in ethanol(lit.);Amax 667 nm in 0.1 M phosphate pH 7.0
CAS Number
/
Applicable Processes
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Scientific Score
9.04
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Sigma-Aldrich
Sizes
1 (1000 µg)
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$ 105.00 - $ 116.52
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Biotin-B-Phycoerythrin SKU : 75166
Absorbance
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CAS Number
/
Applicable Processes
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Scientific Score
7.28
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Sigma-Aldrich
Sizes
1 (1000 µg)
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$ 377.00 - $ 418.38
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Tropaeolin 000 No. 1 SKU : 75360
Scientific Score
4.87
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Sigma-Aldrich
Sizes
1 (25 g)
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$ 63.26 - $ 63.80
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Staining

Staining is a technique used to identify target molecules and provide contrast in an image, usually in microscopy. For example, biological tissues ranging from muscle fibers to organelles, are often stained to highlight particular regions for viewing with a microscope. Overall, staining involves adding a class specific dye, such as DNA, proteins, lipids or carbohydrates, to quantify and qualify their presence.

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Staining Methods

There are two common types of staining in biochemistry:

In vivo staining involves dyeing living tissue by causing cells or structures to take up the stain’s color. In doing so reveals

In vitro staining is done outside of the biological context. In vitro staining is usually used with other methods such as fixation and sample preparation. For example, the crystal violet stain only works with Gram-positive bacteria. If then, another stain is used that works on all cell-types, then Gram-negative bacteria can be identified.

In Vitro Methods

In vitro methods vary given the biological materials at hand, but in general, they follow these steps:

Preparation, either through

Fixation: preserve the shape of cells or tissues

Permeabilization: applying a mild surfactant to dissolve cell membranes, allowing for greater access to organelles

Mounting: applying a sample to a glass microscope slide.

Staining

Immerse target sample in the stain solution, and rinsing to remove excess dye.

If this is ineffective, then a mordant is usually required; a chemical compound which reacts with the stain to produce a colored precipitate.

Some common examples of staining techniques are:

Gram Staining: Determines gram status to classify bacteria, which are either Gram-negative or Gram-positive. Based on cell wall composition, Gram-positive bacteria stain a dark blue to violet, whereas Gram-negative appear red or pink.

Haematoxylin and eosin staining: Used in histology to examine thin sections of tissues. Hematoxylin targets cell nuclei and stains them blue, whereas eosin stains the cytoplasm pink.

Masson’s Trichrome: a three-color staining method used to distinguish cells from connective tissue.

Types of Stains:

Acridine Orange: a fluorescent cationic dye for cell cycle determination targeting nucleic acids

Coomassie blue: a stain used in gel electrophoresis that stains proteins blue

Crystal Violet: stains cell walls purple, and is the primary stain used in Gram staining

DAPI: binds to DNA, and shines a blue fluorescence when viewed under ultraviolet light

Eosin: a counterstain to hematoxylin and to color cytoplasmic material

Ethidium Bromide: colors DNA a fluorescent red-orange color.

Hematoxylin: targets the nucleus, and is the counter part to eosin

Iodine: indicates the presence of starch

Methylene blue: stains the nucleus of animal cells