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Silver Nitrate, Technical SKU: S1086
Absorbance
/
CAS Number
7761-88-8
7761-88-8
Applicable Processes
/
Scientific Score
7.38
Brand
Spectrum Chemical
Sizes
4 (100 - 500 g)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price Range
$ 601.30 - $ 2,329.30
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Naphthol Yellow S SKU: N1301
Absorbance
/
CAS Number
846-70-8
846-70-8
Applicable Processes
/
Scientific Score
7.38
Brand
Spectrum Chemical
Sizes
2 (25 - 100 g)
Available From
2 Vendors
Price Range
$ 54.55 - $ 84.28
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Basic Fuchsin, Special SKU: BA133
Absorbance
/
CAS Number
58969-01-0
58969-01-0
Applicable Processes
/
Scientific Score
7.38
Brand
Spectrum Chemical
Sizes
2 (10 - 25 g)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price Range
$ 104.45 - $ 192.75
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Sudan Red 7B SKU: S3029
Absorbance
/
CAS Number
6368-72-5
6368-72-5
Applicable Processes
/
Scientific Score
7.38
Brand
Spectrum Chemical
Sizes
2 (10 - 50 g)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price Range
$ 70.55 - $ 268.90
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Alcian Blue 8Gx SKU: AL170
Absorbance
/
CAS Number
75881-23-1
75881-23-1
Applicable Processes
/
Scientific Score
7.44
Brand
Spectrum Chemical
Sizes
3 (5 - 100 g)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price Range
$ 90.40 - $ 1,462.35
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Manganese Carbonate, Powder, Reagent SKU: M1100
Absorbance
/
CAS Number
598-62-9
598-62-9
Applicable Processes
/
Scientific Score
7.98
Brand
Spectrum Chemical
Sizes
6 (2.5 - 500 kg)
Available From
2 Vendors
Price Range
$ 112.75 - $ 4,799.80
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Wrights Stain, Certified, Powder SKU: WR200
Absorbance
/
CAS Number
68988-92-1
68988-92-1
Applicable Processes
/
Scientific Score
7.94
Brand
Spectrum Chemical
Sizes
5 (10 - 1000 g)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price Range
$ 63.25 - $ 6,710.20
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Nile Red SKU: N1083
Absorbance
/
CAS Number
7385-67-3
7385-67-3
Applicable Processes
/
Scientific Score
7.89
Brand
Spectrum Chemical
Sizes
4 (1 - 100 g)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price Range
$ 242.15 - $ 1,326.15
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Toluidine Blue O SKU: TO110
Absorbance
/
CAS Number
92-31-9
92-31-9
Applicable Processes
/
Scientific Score
7.94
Brand
Spectrum Chemical
Sizes
5 (10 - 1000 g)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price Range
$ 77.75 - $ 950.60
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Fast Green Fcf, For Electrophoresis SKU: F3410
Absorbance
/
CAS Number
2353-45-9
2353-45-9
Applicable Processes
/
Scientific Score
6.89
Brand
Spectrum Chemical
Sizes
1 (10 g)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price
$ 89.20
Catalog IDs
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Erythrosin B SKU: ER125
Absorbance
/
CAS Number
16423-68-0
16423-68-0
Applicable Processes
/
Scientific Score
7.38
Brand
Spectrum Chemical
Sizes
2 (5 - 25 g)
Available From
2 Vendors
Price Range
$ 58.50 - $ 115.01
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Hematein SKU: H1240
Absorbance
/
CAS Number
475-25-2
475-25-2
Applicable Processes
/
Scientific Score
6.89
Brand
Spectrum Chemical
Sizes
1 (5 g)
Available From
1 Vendor
Price
$ 104.85
Catalog IDs
Added to comparison remove item

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Staining

Staining is a technique used to identify target molecules and provide contrast in an image, usually in microscopy. For example, biological tissues ranging from muscle fibers to organelles, are often stained to highlight particular regions for viewing with a microscope. Overall, staining involves adding a class specific dye, such as DNA, proteins, lipids or carbohydrates, to quantify and qualify their presence.

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Staining Methods

There are two common types of staining in biochemistry:

In vivo staining involves dyeing living tissue by causing cells or structures to take up the stain’s color. In doing so reveals

In vitro staining is done outside of the biological context. In vitro staining is usually used with other methods such as fixation and sample preparation. For example, the crystal violet stain only works with Gram-positive bacteria. If then, another stain is used that works on all cell-types, then Gram-negative bacteria can be identified.

In Vitro Methods

In vitro methods vary given the biological materials at hand, but in general, they follow these steps:

Preparation, either through

Fixation: preserve the shape of cells or tissues

Permeabilization: applying a mild surfactant to dissolve cell membranes, allowing for greater access to organelles

Mounting: applying a sample to a glass microscope slide.

Staining

Immerse target sample in the stain solution, and rinsing to remove excess dye.

If this is ineffective, then a mordant is usually required; a chemical compound which reacts with the stain to produce a colored precipitate.

Some common examples of staining techniques are:

Gram Staining: Determines gram status to classify bacteria, which are either Gram-negative or Gram-positive. Based on cell wall composition, Gram-positive bacteria stain a dark blue to violet, whereas Gram-negative appear red or pink.

Haematoxylin and eosin staining: Used in histology to examine thin sections of tissues. Hematoxylin targets cell nuclei and stains them blue, whereas eosin stains the cytoplasm pink.

Masson’s Trichrome: a three-color staining method used to distinguish cells from connective tissue.

Types of Stains:

Acridine Orange: a fluorescent cationic dye for cell cycle determination targeting nucleic acids

Coomassie blue: a stain used in gel electrophoresis that stains proteins blue

Crystal Violet: stains cell walls purple, and is the primary stain used in Gram staining

DAPI: binds to DNA, and shines a blue fluorescence when viewed under ultraviolet light

Eosin: a counterstain to hematoxylin and to color cytoplasmic material

Ethidium Bromide: colors DNA a fluorescent red-orange color.

Hematoxylin: targets the nucleus, and is the counter part to eosin

Iodine: indicates the presence of starch

Methylene blue: stains the nucleus of animal cells