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Stains

Score 8.69

CF™ 350 hydrazide

Sigma-Aldrich

Absorbance
ε/347 nm 18000
ε/347 nm 18000
CAS Number
/
/
Applicable Processes
/
/
From
$ 174.00 (1 mg)
Sizes
1 (1 mg)
Catalog IDs
SCJ4600003-1MG
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Stains

Score 9.55

CF™ 350 succinimidyl ester

Sigma-Aldrich

Absorbance
ε/347 nm 18000
ε/347 nm 18000
CAS Number
/
/
Applicable Processes
/
/
From
$ 242.00 (1 µmol)
Sizes
1 (1 µmol)
Catalog IDs
SCJ4600005-1UMOL
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Stains

Score 9.50

CF™ 405S maleimide

Sigma-Aldrich

Absorbance
ε/404 nm 33000
ε/404 nm 33000
CAS Number
/
/
Applicable Processes
/
/
From
$ 226.00 (1 µmol)
Sizes
1 (1 µmol)
Catalog IDs
SCJ4600012-1UMOL
Added to comparison remove item

Stains

Score 9.47

CF™ 488A succinimidyl ester

Sigma-Aldrich

Absorbance
ε/490 nm 70000
ε/490 nm 70000
CAS Number
/
/
Applicable Processes
/
/
From
$ 242.00 (1 µmol)
Sizes
1 (1 µmol)
Catalog IDs
SCJ4600018-1UMOL
Added to comparison remove item

Stains

Score 8.57

CF™ 594 hydrazide

Sigma-Aldrich

Absorbance
ε/593 nm 115000
ε/593 nm 115000
CAS Number
/
/
Applicable Processes
/
/
From
$ 174.00 (1 mg)
Sizes
1 (1 mg)
Catalog IDs
SCJ4600029-1MG
Added to comparison remove item

Stains

Score 8.76

CF™ 594 maleimide

Sigma-Aldrich

Absorbance
ε/593 nm 115000
ε/593 nm 115000
CAS Number
/
/
Applicable Processes
/
/
From
$ 226.00 (1 µmol)
Sizes
1 (1 µmol)
Catalog IDs
SCJ4600030-1UMOL
Added to comparison remove item

Stains

Score 8.76

CF™ 620R maleimide

Sigma-Aldrich

Absorbance
ε/617 nm 115000
ε/617 nm 115000
CAS Number
/
/
Applicable Processes
/
/
From
$ 226.00 (1 µmol)
Sizes
1 (1 µmol)
Catalog IDs
SCJ4600033-1UMOL
Added to comparison remove item

Stains

Score 8.76

CF™ 620R succinimidyl ester

Sigma-Aldrich

Absorbance
ε/617 nm 115000
ε/617 nm 115000
CAS Number
/
/
Applicable Processes
/
/
From
$ 242.00 (1 µmol)
Sizes
1 (1 µmol)
Catalog IDs
SCJ4600034-1UMOL
Added to comparison remove item

Stains

Score 9.54

CF™ 640R aminooxy

Sigma-Aldrich

Absorbance
ε/642 nm 105000
ε/642 nm 105000
CAS Number
/
/
Applicable Processes
/
/
From
$ 451.00 (1 mg)
Sizes
1 (1 mg)
Catalog IDs
SCJ4600041-1MG
Added to comparison remove item

Stains

Score 8.69

CF™ 640R hydrazide

Sigma-Aldrich

Absorbance
ε/642 nm 105000
ε/642 nm 105000
CAS Number
/
/
Applicable Processes
/
/
From
$ 174.00 (1 mg)
Sizes
1 (1 mg)
Catalog IDs
SCJ4600042-1MG
Added to comparison remove item

Stains

Score 9.65

CF™ 660C maleimide

Sigma-Aldrich

Absorbance
ε/667 nm 200000
ε/667 nm 200000
CAS Number
/
/
Applicable Processes
/
/
From
$ 226.00 (1 µmol)
Sizes
1 (1 µmol)
Catalog IDs
SCJ4600049-1UMOL
Added to comparison remove item

Stains

Score 9.50

CF™ 660R succinimidyl ester

Sigma-Aldrich

Absorbance
ε/663 nm 100000
ε/663 nm 100000
CAS Number
/
/
Applicable Processes
/
/
From
$ 242.00 (1 µmol)
Sizes
1 (1 µmol)
Catalog IDs
SCJ4600053-1UMOL
Added to comparison remove item

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Staining

Staining is a technique used to identify target molecules and provide contrast in an image, usually in microscopy. For example, biological tissues ranging from muscle fibers to organelles, are often stained to highlight particular regions for viewing with a microscope. Overall, staining involves adding a class specific dye, such as DNA, proteins, lipids or carbohydrates, to quantify and qualify their presence.

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Staining Methods

There are two common types of staining in biochemistry:

In vivo staining involves dyeing living tissue by causing cells or structures to take up the stain’s color. In doing so reveals

In vitro staining is done outside of the biological context. In vitro staining is usually used with other methods such as fixation and sample preparation. For example, the crystal violet stain only works with Gram-positive bacteria. If then, another stain is used that works on all cell-types, then Gram-negative bacteria can be identified.

In Vitro Methods

In vitro methods vary given the biological materials at hand, but in general, they follow these steps:

Preparation, either through

Fixation: preserve the shape of cells or tissues

Permeabilization: applying a mild surfactant to dissolve cell membranes, allowing for greater access to organelles

Mounting: applying a sample to a glass microscope slide.

Staining

Immerse target sample in the stain solution, and rinsing to remove excess dye.

If this is ineffective, then a mordant is usually required; a chemical compound which reacts with the stain to produce a colored precipitate.

Some common examples of staining techniques are:

Gram Staining: Determines gram status to classify bacteria, which are either Gram-negative or Gram-positive. Based on cell wall composition, Gram-positive bacteria stain a dark blue to violet, whereas Gram-negative appear red or pink.

Haematoxylin and eosin staining: Used in histology to examine thin sections of tissues. Hematoxylin targets cell nuclei and stains them blue, whereas eosin stains the cytoplasm pink.

Masson’s Trichrome: a three-color staining method used to distinguish cells from connective tissue.

Types of Stains:

Acridine Orange: a fluorescent cationic dye for cell cycle determination targeting nucleic acids

Coomassie blue: a stain used in gel electrophoresis that stains proteins blue

Crystal Violet: stains cell walls purple, and is the primary stain used in Gram staining

DAPI: binds to DNA, and shines a blue fluorescence when viewed under ultraviolet light

Eosin: a counterstain to hematoxylin and to color cytoplasmic material

Ethidium Bromide: colors DNA a fluorescent red-orange color.

Hematoxylin: targets the nucleus, and is the counter part to eosin

Iodine: indicates the presence of starch

Methylene blue: stains the nucleus of animal cells