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beta-Alanine beta-naphthylamide hydrobromide SKU: 260711
CAS Number
201985-01-5
201985-01-5
Purity
Purified
Purified
Molecular Weight
295.18
295.18
Brand
US Biological
Sizes
1 (1000000 µg)
Available From
1 Supplier
Price
$ 192.00
Catalog IDs
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beta-Chloro-D-alanine SKU: 269712
CAS Number
/
Purity
/
Molecular Weight
/
Brand
US Biological
Sizes
5 (2 - 1000000 g)
Available From
1 Supplier
Price Range
$ 192.00 - $ 1,296.00
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beta-Cyclopentyl-D-alanine SKU: 269770
CAS Number
99295-81-5
99295-81-5
Purity
/
Molecular Weight
157.213
157.213
Brand
US Biological
Sizes
5 (50000 - 1000000 µg)
Available From
1 Supplier
Price Range
$ 220.00 - $ 1,170.00
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beta-Cyclopentyl-L-alanine SKU: 269715
CAS Number
99295-82-6
99295-82-6
Purity
/
Molecular Weight
157.213
157.213
Brand
US Biological
Sizes
5 (50000 - 1000000 µg)
Available From
1 Supplier
Price Range
$ 232.00 - $ 1,294.00
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beta-Cyclopentyl-DL-alanine SKU: 269714
CAS Number
96539-87-6
96539-87-6
Purity
/
Molecular Weight
157.213
157.213
Brand
US Biological
Sizes
5 (50000 - 1000000 µg)
Available From
1 Supplier
Price Range
$ 235.00 - $ 905.00
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alpha-Methyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride SKU: 283891
CAS Number
64619-96-1
64619-96-1
Purity
/
Molecular Weight
229.704
229.704
Brand
US Biological
Sizes
5 (2 - 1000000 g)
Available From
1 Supplier
Price Range
$ 216.00 - $ 1,394.00
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alpha-Methyl-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride SKU: 283811
CAS Number
64665-60-7
64665-60-7
Purity
/
Molecular Weight
229.704
229.704
Brand
US Biological
Sizes
5 (2 - 1000000 g)
Available From
1 Supplier
Price Range
$ 207.00 - $ 1,243.00
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beta-tert-Butyl-DL-alanine SKU: 265132
CAS Number
60122-72-7
60122-72-7
Purity
/
Molecular Weight
145.202
145.202
Brand
US Biological
Sizes
5 (2 - 1000000 g)
Available From
1 Supplier
Price Range
$ 192.00 - $ 1,459.00
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alpha-Methyl-D-valine SKU: 283856
CAS Number
53940-82-2
53940-82-2
Purity
/
Molecular Weight
131.175
131.175
Brand
US Biological
Sizes
5 (2 - 1000000 g)
Available From
1 Supplier
Price Range
$ 240.00 - $ 2,002.00
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beta-Cyclohexyl-L-alanine hydrochloride SKU: 270365
CAS Number
25528-71-6
25528-71-6
Purity
/
Molecular Weight
207.7
207.7
Brand
US Biological
Sizes
5 (2 - 50 g)
Available From
1 Supplier
Price Range
$ 192.00 - $ 1,284.00
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beta-(3-Thienyl)-D-alanine SKU: 291187
CAS Number
152612-26-5
152612-26-5
Purity
/
Molecular Weight
/
Brand
US Biological
Sizes
5 (2 - 1000000 g)
Available From
1 Supplier
Price Range
$ 219.00 - $ 2,442.00
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alpha-Methyl-DL-phenylalanine SKU: 283810
CAS Number
1132-26-9
1132-26-9
Purity
/
Molecular Weight
179.2
179.2
Brand
US Biological
Sizes
5 (2 - 1000000 g)
Available From
1 Supplier
Price Range
$ 202.00 - $ 1,224.00
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Amino Acid Functions

Amino acids are organic molecules comprised mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. They contain a side chain (R group), which is specific for each amino acid, in addition to an amine (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) functional group. Around 500 amino acids are known, whereas only 20 are coded by the DNA. For humans nine amino acids like Histidine or Lysine are essential, meaning they cannot be produced by the body itself and have to be taken up with food.

In vivo, amino acids are the building blocks of peptides and proteins. Through translation of RNA amino acids are attached step-by-step with each other. The sequence for these polymer chains is encoded by the DNA which is then transcribed into RNA followed by the translation into proteins.

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Peptide Bond Formation

The peptide bond is formed by the reaction of the carboxyl group with the amino group of the following amino acid resulting in an amide bond. In most cases the in vivo polymerization is catalyzed by ribosomes together with different other molecules like transfer RNA (tRNA) – which carry the next amino acid –, initiation factors, elongation factors and termination factors. tRNAs are linked with only one specific amino acid through an ester bond by enzymes called aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. The right sequence of the proteins is achieved by complementary base pairing of the loaded tRNAs with the mRNA situated in the ribosomes. The genetic code is defined by codons, a sequence of three DNA bases which code for one amino acid. Since the genetic code has redundancy but no ambiguity, there are codons translate into the same amino acid but no codon that can translate into two different amino acids.

Structure

All proteinogenic amino acids belong to the group of α-amino acids – the amine and carboxyl group are attached to the first (alpha-) carbon atom – and occur in two chiral forms, called L- or D-isomer. Most proteins are composed of L-amino acids, but rarely enzymatic posttranslational modifications can produce proteins with D-amino acids.

In terms of proteins, the amino acid sequence is called primary structure. Along with posttranslational modifications, the primary structure determines the secondary and the tertiary structure of a protein.

Applications

Beside the use in protein synthesis, amino acids can exert non-protein functions. Through oxidation to urea and carbon dioxide, they may be converted into energy. The synthesis of neurotransmitters like gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and other molecules require amino acids as precursors.

Labeling of amino acids is widely used in the field of proteomics, e.g. in SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) experiments. You have the choice between various labeling techniques like radioactive isotope, non-radioactive isotope or dye labeling.

In the industry animal feed is complemented with amino acids to compensate the absence of essential amino acids in the bulk components.

Glutamic acid is often used as a flavor enhancer, and aspartame as a low-calorie sugar replacement.