Carbohydrates, depending on their size, are classified as either monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. All four groupings contain a high concentration of hydroxyl groups, the three core elements being carbon hydrogen and oxygen.
Monosaccharides and disaccharides have low molecular weights and are classified as sugars; glucose and fructose are examples of monosaccharides, while disaccharides include sucrose and lactose.
Oligosaccharides are no longer than ten monosaccharides in length. A subset known as probiotics have positive digestion effects; stimulating and suppressing different groups of bacteria in our intestines.
Polysaccharides, (carbohydrate polymers), are divided into homo- and heteropolysaccharides; either consisting of one type of monosaccharide or made up of multiple types of monosaccharides, respectively.
Heteropolysaccharides contain all dietary fibers:
• Guar Gum
Processing and Functions
Mitochondria break down carbohydrates to produce the energy-providing molecule: ATP. Whereas, in bacteria, the fermentation process can yield various products from the breakdown of carbohydrates, depending on the species of bacteria. Therefore carbohydrates are a useful bacterial identification tool. They are also used as part of cellular structures, such as receptors on the membrane