Set-up of specialized techniques requires a certain input material or system; this is where sample preparation and gene editing are required, either to create a pure sample containing the target molecule or a genetic model with a particular behavior.
Sample preparation is necessary for the majority of life science research experiments; enabling compatibility and accuracy while preventing interference from contaminants for successful analysis.
Initial steps include DNA or RNA Extraction (which can include the use of Columns & Beads), Protein Purification and Immunoprecipitation for isolation of the target molecule.
Sample cleanup and enrichment kits go one step further to increase concentration and remove any remaining impurities which may prevent proper analysis.
Sample preservation allows the prepared target molecule to be stabilized and stored until required; preventing degradation in the process.
Genetic manipulation has recently been revolutionized by the discovery of CRISPR, allowing greater precision in gene editing than ever before.
Of course existing gene transfer techniques such as transfection, transformation, and transduction, are used to good effect. While Gene modification utilizes mutagenesis and bisulfite conversion to modify existing DNA, rather than introducing a new fragment. Gene silencing is slightly different in this respect, in that it negatively influences the expression of existing DNA via the use of short segments of DNA (shRNA, siRNA, and miRNA).
Gene editing controls offer a standardized model for comparison against the effects produced by the introduced genetic alteration. They, therefore, provide a test of reliability and accurate evaluation.
In vitro transcription produces a required RNA sample from existing DNA, useful for gene expression studies.