Nucleotides are organic molecules that are made up of a nucleobase, a five-carbon sugar, and more than one phosphate group. Nucleotides make up the subunits of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA. DNA includes the nucleobases adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G) attached to a phospho-deoxyribose sugar, whereas the RNA backbone is made up of a phospho-ribose sugar. For RNA, thymine (T) has also been replaced with uracil (U). Nucleotides can also be used as carriers of energy in the cell (as ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP).

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Experimental uses of nucleotides

Nucleotides are used for many molecular biology processes such as PCR as well as for sequencing processes; there are kits specifically designed for:

End-Point PCR

Real-Time PCR

Sequencing Applications

cDNA Synthesis

Compare Nucleotides (Primers for cDNA Synthesis)

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Video Credits

Video: Bozeman Science/YouTube